Drawing on econometric evidence and in depth studies of west africa latin america and southeast asia this book explores how horizontal inequalities ethnic religious or racial are a source of violent conflict and how political economic and cultural status inequalities have contributed. Stewart argued that when horizontal inequalities are political as well as economic when the inequalities are widening when there are a few large groups rather than smaller ethnic communities and where the government is rigid in their policy then conflict is more likely to occur. This in turn has spurred a shift in the policy agenda from conflict to post conflict and an evolution in the development research agenda from the economic costs and causes of conflict towards the economics of post conflict recovery and peace building. Increasing academic attention is being paid to understanding the role of inter group horizontal inequalities in the emergence of violent conflict in developing countries stby 2003 stewart 2000 stewart 2002 the broad coincidence of cultural ethnic or religious differences with severe . This book evaluates the extent to which post conflict reconstruction has addressed problems of horizontal inequalities through country case studies on burundi rwanda nepal peru guatemala bosnia and herzegovina and afghanistan and four thematic studies on macro economic policies
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