Endoplasmic reticulum stress and disease progression the er has essential roles in physiologic regulation of many processes accumulating evidence indicates that pathologic conditions that interfere with er homeostasis give rise to chronic activation of the upr which contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum er is an organelle with extraordinary signaling and homeostatic functions it is the organelle responsible for protein folding maturation quality control and trafficking of proteins destined for the plasma membrane or for secretion into the extracellular environment. Unfolded proteins and other conditions affecting endoplasmic reticulum er homeostasis cause er stress the cell reacts to er stress by activation of the unfolded protein response upr which induces profound changes in cellular metabolism including general translation attenuation transcriptional upregulation of molecular chaperone genes and activation of er associated degradation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in health and disease 1 c isbn 978 94 007 4350 2 isbn 978 94 007 4351 9 ebook doi 101007 978 94 007 4351 9 springer dordrecht heidelberg new york london library of congress control number 2012940268 cardiovascular disease and endoplasmic reticulum stress 339. Er stress and the upr in cardiovascular disease the unfolded protein response upr is activated upon an increase in mis folded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum er
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